Port Modernization & New Port Development

Since about more than 90% of India's trade by volume is conducted via the country’s maritime route, there is a continuous need to develop India's ports and trade related infrastructure to accelerate growth in the manufacturing industry and to assist the 'Make in India' initiative. India has 12 major ports and approximately 200 non-major ports administered by Central and State Governments respectively.

As per the studies conducted under the Sagarmala Programme, it is expected that by 2025, cargo traffic at Indian ports will be approximately 2500 MMTPA while the current cargo handling capacity of Indian ports is only 1500 MMTPA. A roadmap has been prepared for increasing the Indian port capacity to 3500+ MMTPA by 2025 to cater to the growing traffic. This includes port operational efficiency improvement, capacity expansion of existing ports and new port development.

Project Unnati - Operational Efficiency Improvement

Under Project Unnati, the global benchmarks were adopted to improve the efficiency and productivity KPIs for 12 major ports. Around 116 initiatives were identified across 12 major ports to unlock more than 100 MTPA capacity just through efficiency improvement. Out of which, 91 initiatives have been implemented to unlock around 80 MTPA capacity.

Status of operational efficiency improvement at Major Ports:

Port Name Total Initiatives Completed Intiatives On Track Initiatives Delayed Initiatives Dropped Initiatives
Paradip 14 13 0 0 1
Kandla 14 14 0 0 0
VOC 5 3 1 1 0
Kolkata 6 3 1 1 1
Haldia 9 5 1 3 0
JNPT 17 16 1 0 0
Mumbai 7 6 0 0 1
Goa 7 5 2 0 0
NMPT 5 2 0 0 3
Cochin 5 3 0 0 2
Vizag 5 5 0 0 0
Ennore 13 10 2 1 0
Chennai 9 6 0 2 1
TOTAL 116 91 8 8 9

Capacity Expansion of existing Major Ports

For all the 12 major ports, master plans have been finalized. From the port master plans, 106 port capacity expansion projects (cost: Rs. 67,697 Cr) have been identified for implementation over next 20 years and are expected to add 785 MTPA to the capacities at major ports.

Port Master Plan Projects at Major Ports:

Major Port Master Plan Projects
No. of Projects Project Cost (Rs. Cr) Capacity Addition (MTPA)
Chennai 6 1187 14
Cochin 4 1388 4
KPL 16 12412 108
JNPT 10 17924 126
Kandla 14 6324 104
Kolkata 1 25 4
Haldia 8 3645 39
Mormugao 4 2345 23
Mumbai 8 5472 33
NMPT 4 843 18
Paradip 8 5224 78
Tuticorin 17 8974 182
Vizag 6 1935 52
Total 106 67,697 785

New Port Development

To fill the demand gap, 6 new major ports are planned which will bring in significant capacity expansion. The locations of these new ports are deliberated after detailed origin-destination study of cargo commodities and there are mainly three levers that propel the need for building new ports: New port locations have been identified based on the cargo flow for key commodities and the projected traffic:

Greenfield ports are proposed to be developed at

  • Vadhavan (Maharashtra)
  • Tajpur (West Bengal)
  • Paradip Outer Harbour (Odhisha)
  • Cuddalore/Sirkazhi (Tamil Nadu)
  • Belikeri (Karnataka)
  • Enayam (Tamil Nadu) – Transshipment Port